Sunday, February 18, 2024

National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases

Early Life And Education

Understanding Food Allergy

Anthony Fauci was born on December 24, 1940, in , New York City, to Eugenia Lillian and Stephen A. Fauci . His father was a -educated pharmacist who owned his pharmacy. Fauci’s mother and sister worked the pharmacy’s register, and Fauci delivered prescriptions. Fauci’s mother also worked at a dry cleaner. The pharmacy was located in the section of Brooklyn, directly beneath the family apartment, previously in the neighborhood. When he was a child, Fauci developed a fascination with .

Fauci’s grandparents immigrated to the United States from Italy in the late 19th century. His paternal grandparents, Antonino Fauci and Calogera Guardino, were from , and his maternal grandparents were from . His maternal grandmother Raffaella Trematerra was a seamstress, and his maternal grandfather Giovanni Abys was a Swiss-born artist noted for his landscape and portrait painting, magazine illustrations in Italy, as well as graphic design for commercial labels, including olive oil cans. Fauci grew up , but now considers himself a , stating that he thinks “that there are a lot of things about organized religion that are unfortunate, and to like to stay away from it.” In 2021, he was named Humanist of the Year by the .

Department Of Health Education And Welfare

The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was created on April 11, 1953, when Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 became effective. HEW thus became the first new Cabinet-level department since the Department of Labor was created in 1913. The Reorganization Plan abolished the FSA and transferred all of its functions to the secretary of HEW and all components of the agency to the department. The first secretary of HEW was , a native of Texas, who had served as commander of the in World War II and was editor and publisher of the . Sworn in on April 11, 1953, as secretary, she had been FSA administrator since January 21, 1953.

The six major program-operating components of the new department were the Public Health Service, the Office of Education, the , the Social Security Administration, the , and . The department was also responsible for three federally aided corporations: , the , and the .

United States Department Of Health And Human Services

United States Department of Health and Human Services

Seal of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
Flag of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Department Headquarters
Department overview
Preceding agencies
  • United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Jurisdiction
HHS.gov

The United States Department of Health and Human Services , is a department of the U.S. created to protect the of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its is “Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America”. Before the separate federal was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare .

HHS is administered by the , who is appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the . The position is currently held by .

The , the of the PHS, is led by the who is responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the secretary or by the in addition to his or her primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.

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Immediate Office Of The Secretary

The Immediate Office of the Secretary is the top-level unit that directly reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. They assist in the administration of HHS and include the following components:

  • Office of the Deputy Secretary an Executive Schedule, Level II Position. This role is responsible for all departmental operations.
  • Office of the Chief of Staff This role is responsible for staff coordination and support.
  • Office of the General Counsel
  • Executive Secretariat Develops and reviews rules, regulations, correspondences, Reports to Congress, and other policy-related documents and decisions. Headed by the Executive Secretary to the Department and assisted by the Deputy Executive Secretary Deputy Executive Secretary.
  • Office of Health Reform Oversees the implementation of new policies and legislation.
  • Office of the Chief Technology Officer Oversees the use of Data and Technology implementations in HHS.
  • Office of National Security A department-wide office that provides oversight, policy direction, standards, and performance assessments on all intelligence and national security related programs within HHS.

How Is Niaid Addressing This Critical Topic

Neutrophil Engulfing Mrsa Photograph by National Institute Of Allergy ...

NIAID played a key role in the development of a currently available vaccine to prevent monkeypox virus disease and smallpox, as well as antiviral treatments for smallpox that may also be used for monkeypox. Additionally, NIAID provided diagnostic support during several monkeypox outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of Congo over a four-year period. Today, NIAID scientists continue to conduct research to better understand monkeypox transmission and disease. NIAID performs genomic sequencing to better understand the monkeypox virus and its strains, as well as ecological studies to understand spillover events. Investigators with NIAIDs Centers for Research in Emerging Infectious Diseases, located in endemic countries in Africa, are screening animals and humans for monkeypox. NIAID is also working to develop high-throughput diagnostics capable of determining history of infection and distinguishing between individuals who have been infected with a poxvirus and those who were vaccinated against smallpox. NIAID and its partners screen novel compounds in a search for potential antiviral candidate treatments and is working toward larger clinical testing for the smallpox drug tecovirimat as a treatment for patients with monkeypox virus disease. The NIAID-supported repositories, the BEI Resources Repository and World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses supply monkeypox viral isolates and reagents for distribution to global research and surveillance communities.

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Division Of Intramural Research

Scientific Director: Steven M. Holland, M.D.

The NIAID Division of Intramural Research conducts basic and clinical research in a wide range of disciplines related to immunology, allergy, and infectious diseases. DIR scientists study all aspects of infectious diseases such as AIDS, malaria, and influenza, including the causative agent, vectors, and pathogenesis in the human host. The purpose of the DIR is to make scientific discoveries that promote the development of new vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics to improve human health. Toward this goal, the DIR works to:

  • Expand knowledge of normal immune system components and functions
  • Define mechanisms responsible for abnormal immune function
  • Understand the biology of infectious agents and the host response to infection
  • Develop strategies to prevent and treat immunologic, allergic, and infectious diseases

A strong clinical research component is integral to the DIR, allowing key lab discoveries to be rapidly translated into methods to prevent, diagnose, or treat disease.

Acting Scientific Director: Richard A. Koup, M.D.

The NIAID Vaccine Research Center conducts research that facilitates the development of effective vaccines for human disease. The primary focus of research is the development of vaccines for HIV/AIDS. VRC activities include the following:

Department Of Health & Human Services

The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health & Human Services in 1979, when its education functions were transferred to the newly created under the . HHS was left in charge of the Social Security Administration, agencies constituting the Public Health Service, and Family Support Administration.

In 1995, the was removed from the Department of Health & Human Services, and established as an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States Government.

The established a reserve fund of more than $630 billion over 10 years to finance fundamental reform of the health care system.

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National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Institute overview
Preceding Institute
Parent department
niaid.nih.gov

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is one of the 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health , an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services . NIAID’s mission is to conduct basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases.

NIAID has on-campus laboratories in and Hamilton, Montana, and funds research conducted by scientists at institutions in the United States and throughout the world. NIAID also works closely with partners in academia, industry, government, and non-governmental organizations in multifaceted and multidisciplinary efforts to address emerging health challenges such as the H1N1/09 pandemic and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Citing Resources In The Web Archive

Infectious Disease Expert Discusses Coronavirus Threat with VOA

Citations should indicate: Archived in the Library of Congress Web Archives at www.loc.gov. When citing a particular website include the archived website’s Citation ID . Researchers are advised to follow standard citation guidelines for websites, pages, and articles. Researchers are reminded that many of the materials in this web archive are copyrighted and that citations must credit the authors/creators and publishers of the works. For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.

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The Health Insurance Portability And Accountability Act

This program is to ensure the accountability of medical professionals to respect and carry-out basic human health rights, under the act of the same name. In the United States, the government feels that it is essential for the American people to understand their civil duty and rights to all of their medical information. That includes: health insurance policies or medical records from every doctor or emergency visit in one’s life. Through Health & Human services one is able to file a complaint that their HIPAA rights have been violated or a consultant that will be able to decide if their rights were violated.

Anthony S Fauci Md Niaid Director

Dr. Fauci was appointed Director of NIAID in 1984. He oversees an extensive research portfolio of basic and applied research to prevent, diagnose, and treat established infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis and malaria as well as emerging diseases such as Ebola and Zika. NIAID also supports research on transplantation and immune-related illnesses, including autoimmune disorders, asthma and allergies. The NIAID budget for fiscal year 2022 is approximately $6.3 billion.

Dr. Fauci has advised seven Presidents on HIV/AIDS and many other domestic and global health issues. He was one of the principal architects of the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief , a program that has saved millions of lives throughout the developing world.

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Why Is The Study Of Monkeypox A Priority For Niaid

Monkeypox, like other pox viruses, is classified as a category A pathogen, which are those organisms/biological agents that pose the highest risk to national security and public health because they can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person-to-person, result in high mortality rates, have the potential for major public health impact, might cause public panic and social disruption, and require special action for public health preparedness. Although monkeypox is not as deadly as smallpox, it has a reported fatality rate between 1 and 11 percent. Cases may be severe, especially in children, pregnant women, or people with suppressed immune systems. Additionally, the lesions caused by monkeypox may lead to permanent scars.

Office Of Intergovernmental And External Affairs

Mers Coronavirus Infection Photograph by National Institute Of Allergy ...

The Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs serves as the liaison to state, local and tribal governments as well as NGOs. Through the IEA, HHS directs oversees current federal health programs at the regional and tribal level.

  • Headquarters Staff assists the HHS Secretary in developing policies related to state and local government relations.
  • Tribal Affairs serves as the point of contact for HHS regarding HHS programs on Indian reservations.
  • Center for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships works to create partnerships with faith-based and community organizations at the local level.
  • Office of Human Resources the department-wide office for HR related issues.
  • Regional Offices Work with the subordinated state governments to institute HHS policy in the respective regions. Each office is led by a presidential-appointed regional director. The following
HHS IEA Regional Offices
  • formerly the .

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Office Of Inspector General

The investigates criminal activity for HHS. The who work for OIG have the same title series “1811” as other federal criminal investigators, such as the , HSI, , and . They receive their law enforcement training at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia. OIG Special Agents have special skills in investigating related to and fraud and abuse. Organized crime has dominated the criminal activity relative to this type of fraud.

HHS-OIG investigates tens of millions of dollars in Medicare fraud each year. In addition, OIG will continue its coverage of all 50 states and the by its multi-agency task forces that identify, investigate, and prosecute individuals who willfully avoid payment of their child support obligations under the Child Support Recovery Act.

HHS-OIG agents also provide protective services to the Secretary of HHS, and other department executives as necessary.

In 2002, the department released , a national strategic initiative for improving the health of Americans.

With the passage of the , and the of 2010, the has taken an emboldened stance against healthcare related non-compliance, most notably for violations of and the .

In 2015, the issued a fraud alert as a warning to hospitals and healthcare systems to monitor and comply with their physician compensation arrangements.

National Institutes Of Health

National Institutes of Health

National Institutes of Health logo
Aerial photo of the NIH Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center,
Agency overview
Preceding agency
.gov

The National Institutes of Health, commonly referred to as NIH , is the primary agency of the responsible for and research. It was founded in the late 1880s and is now part of the . The majority of NIH facilities are located in , and other nearby suburbs of the , with other primary facilities in the in and smaller satellite facilities located around the United States. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through the and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program.

As of 2013, the IRP had 1,200 and more than 4,000 fellows in basic, translational, and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U.S., or about US$26.4 billion.

The NIH comprises of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent , the use of to manage , and the creation of against , , and .

In 2019, the NIH was ranked number two in the world, behind , for biomedical sciences in the , which measured the largest contributors to papers published in a subset of leading journals from 2015 to 2018.

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Director Of The National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases Dr Anthony Fauci To Keynote Blue Star Families Town Hall In One Of His Last Appearances As National Health Leader

WASHINGTON, Aug. 31, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — OnThursday, September 1, at 2:00 PM EST, Blue Star Families, a national non-profit dedicated to supporting military families and strengthening communities, will convene a Blue Star Tips virtual town hall entitled “Be Healthy and Thrive this Fall ’22”.

Dr. Fauci announced last week that he will be stepping down from his leadership role in the presidential administration and as Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Since the beginning of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, Dr. Fauci has been the leading voice on response and public education.

This panel will be one of the last opportunities to ask Dr. Fauci and other health experts on the most up to date health information as we head into fall. With the added challenge of possibly changing duty stations or worries about the ongoing health crises, this Blue Star Tips virtual town hall aims to provide information to make sure military families are supported and have the resources needed as they make these changes.

The event is free, and registration is required in advance:

WHO:

Us Labs Join Forces To Battle Infectious Diseases

Dr. Fauci On Stepping Down And The Health Threat Of Toxic Politics

Infectious-disease experts from 18 U.S. federal agencies and academic institutions met at Texas A& M University recently to discuss working together to combat the viruses, bacteria and other emerging pathogens that threaten the nations agricultural economy, food supply, wildlife and public health.

The workshop marked the first membership meeting of RAV3N Research Alliance for Veterinary Science and Biodefense BSL-3 Network a national network of biosafety level-3 labs engaged in biodefense research for infectious animal diseases. RAV3N receives funding support from the USDA. Texas A& M Universitys Global Health Research Complex serves as the networks headquarters.

Our workshop focused primarily on determining how the federal and academic labs across the United States can cooperate to improve our ability to detect and respond to emerging pathogens, GHRC Director Kurt Zuelke said. We also considered how to improve the development of countermeasures that will help slow or stop the spread of these pathogens and the diseases they cause.

RAV3N formed in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, which delayed the groups first meeting until Aug. 23-25, 2022. Representatives from all 18 members attended the three-day workshop, 15 in-person and three virtually.

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